India has a long and recognized Science and Technology (S&T) tradition from the ancient times to great achievements during this century. The period prior to independence has been largely connected to pure research and development.
India occupies the fifth position in space launching technologies in the world. Its nuclear technologies are recognized as one of the advanced technologies including the completion of the nuclear cycle of production of source materials to waste management.
India has a well defined Science and Technology structure. The different ministries set up by the government; fund, coordinate, promote, and oversee the scientific and research activities in the country through the implementing departments such as: Department of Scientific & Industrial Research (DSIR), Department of Science & Technology (DST), Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education (ICFR), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Department of Space Research (DOS), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO).